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Afghanistan and the Peoples’ Republic of China What made bilateral relations deepened?

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Afghanistan and the Peoples’ Republic of China What made bilateral relations deepened?
 Afghanistan and the People’s Republic of China have had good political, economic and cultural relations from the old era to today. In general, this importance is influenced by economic and political exchanges that shape relations between the two countries (Center for Strategic Studies). Considering the geopolitical situation in Afghanistan and the threats and opportunities posed by this situation, the importance of this country has increased for the People’s Republic of China and a number of factors are contributing to the development of these relations. Strengthening the spirit of convergence in the region in foreign policy of both countries have been one of the important factors of the development of these relations. Today, regional cooperation for economic development and addressing the security challenges as a global crisis in the region and the world are among the most important foreign policy requirements of each country.
Afghanistan has put regional cooperation at the top of its foreign policy agenda after a decade-long isolation period (1990s-2000) after the fall of the Taliban. Meanwhile, regional co-operation means the establishment of ties with the countries of the region, which is important for the region and as whole for Afghanistan. In this regard, China is undoubtedly of great importance to Afghanistan (Center for Strategic Studies).
 China, in its strategic and long-term perspective, sees Afghanistan as the centerpiece of Central and South Asia, and sees its security and stability as a major contributor to China’s security and economic growth. One point cannot be ruled out that both countries are looking at each other in spite of friendly relations, and this is a commonplace in foreign policy of the countries.
China’s strategy towards Afghanistan, prior to 2014, is more based on economic influence and mercantilism, but with the announcement of withdrawal of US and NATO forces, this approach has shifted a purely economic approach to a military and security one, reflecting China’s concerns because Afghanistan is the only country in the region that could a way to expand the activities of terrorist groups and create a vacuum after the US presence in this country. The most important field of cooperation between China and Afghanistan, which contributed to the deepening of relations between the two countries, is to cooperate in the field of industrial, energy, oil, gas and electricity and oil and gas fields, railways and Road construction (International Center for Peace Studies).
According to the Afghan government, where multilateralism and economic based foreign policy are centered on the diplomatic apparatus, the country’s position can be considered as an important factor for regional integration for neighboring countries and the region, and it can emancipate the country from the existing security and economic crisis. Because Afghanistan is neighborhood with two geopolitical structures: One, Indian peninsula (India and Pakistan) and the second geopolitical structure of Central Asia, in which Afghanistan separates these two structures and its northern part includes the geopolitical structure of Central Asia and the southern part Geopolitical Sum of the South (International Center for Peace Studies).
Now, questions come up such as what made the Chinese look warm for Afghanistan, and China’s foreign policy is based on what is at stake in Afghanistan, and what is China’s goal of deepening its relations with this country?  Meanwhile, what has been the Afghan government’s views on China’s foreign policy toward China, and what factors have led both countries to engage in expanded diplomatic approach and neighborly relations? Of course, good diplomatic relations are based on good historical relationships, and the opportunities and challenges that exist in the region make these relations between the countries form well. China and Afghanistan cannot exclude this sensibility. The economic and security perspectives of both countries in relation to important issues are among the factors that can be cited as an example of this claim. To further explore this issue, it is necessary to address the nature of the foreign policy of each country separately. The principles of the foreign policy of Beijing and Kabul will be the fact that the answers to these questions will be clear. First of all, it is imperative to look at the subject briefly.
Afghanistan’s foreign policy and its goals of deepening ties with China
As China’s foreign policy focuses on Kabul’s special position, Kabul also seeks to use this regional pond to overcome challenges and take advantage of opportunities. The basic foundation for Afghanistan’s foreign policy after the formation of the interim administration led by Hamid Karzai is based on the balance of relations with the countries of the region and the world. The principle of balancing relations and multilateralism combined with the adoption of economic-oriented approaches which has forced Kabul to seek economic partners such as China. 
The pursuit of economic goals, along with security and cultural components, is a central feature of this multilateral policy with balanced characteristics, which provides the conditions for any powerful player to match with the positions of Kabul.
Kabul, after a decade of isolation in its foreign policy, has been affected by irreparable disruptions. The reoccupation of regional politics with the special geographic significance is indicative of the formation of the irreducible role of Kabul in the regional and international system. China as a neighbor moving from regional power to global power, by removing the common border and neighboring Afghanistan, will be the unquestionable actor in Afghanistan. Understanding this issue, the Afghan diplomatic system is trying to engage actively China in the country’s economic and political affairs such as economic wells and political reconciliation. 
Therefore, the foreign policy of Afghanistan can be briefly described in the framework of its theoretical basis, based on the principle of peaceful coexistence and respect for the national sovereignty of the other countries. This policy has a different approach from the past with a special component for each country, based on time requirements, with red lines that meet the needs of today’s Afghanistan, neighboring countries, the region and the world, as well as addressing the challenges and opportunities, to be able to turn challenges into opportunity. The most important component of Afghanistan’s foreign policy toward China can be summarized in four areas:
1- Attracting China’s contribution to Afghanistan’s reconstruction and rehabilitation;
2- Further support for combating the phenomenon of terrorism;
3- Attracting more China’s cooperation to build trust between Afghanistan and Pakistan;
4- Balancing regional powers with a view to helping regional cooperation (Center for Studies)
Afghanistan looks forward to solving the country’s troubles with regional solutions after the failure of major powers policies such as the United States. The role of China and its increasing influence in the world of economy and politics is a sign of great transformation in the country’s policy makers’ view. The growing power of China, both in politics and in the economy and culture, has attracted the attention of many countries in bringing about closer ties to this power. Afghanistan is struggling with a balance-oriented and pragmatic foreign policy to maintain its close and strategic relationship with Washington at the same time to strengthening its relationship with China. The probableemergence of China’s until 2025-2030 in the context of global power and its possible role as an alternative to America’s role in Afghanistan has attracted attention from Afghanistan as an alternative to the United States.
The increasing role of China in the region’s transformations and proximity to Afghanistan automatically changes its position in Afghan politics.Afghanistan is trying to attract close economic ties with China and its strategic partnership with China. By doing so, Afghanistan tries to make optimal use of the opportunities available to China both in the political arena and in the economic field. The opportunities Afghanistan sees for China will affect the stability and peace in this country and improve its economic situation. These opportunities are as follows:
1- China, as one of the five members of the UN Security Council and having good relations with the governments of Russia, Iran, Pakistan and the proximity of border with India, has an important stabilizingrole to play in the region in order to reduce the threats of fundamentalism and terror. Important role of China in Central Asia is important for Afghanistan as well;
2- - China, as the main organizer and player of the Shanghai Organization, has provided Afghanistan with an opportunity to become a member of the observer in the organization. The continuation of Afghanistan’s counterbalance against China provides the opportunity for the permanent membership of the organization in Shanghai;
3- China’s close relationship with Pakistan offers the most opportunity to put pressure on Pakistan’s positive approach towards Afghanistan. In spite of the changes in the relations between the two countries, China and Pakistan have had good relations and close interactions. 
Chinese leaders approached Pakistan with a plan to infiltrate the United States and the former Soviet Union, and still balancing with India (Farzin Nia, 2006, 47). 
This second policy has been in line with Pakistani security objectives, which Pakistani leaders still remained loyal to it. In the Chinese security doctrine, Pakistan as a supporter of the Taliban and Muslim extremists, including the Uygur of the Xinjiang states, is a source of threat to China and the region. This Chinese view is aligned with the slogan of the Afghan government and provides a good opportunity for both countries to work to change Pakistan’s security policy (Center for Strategic Studies);.