What happened after Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan?

30th anniversary of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan has been marked. On 25 Dec 1978, Red army stormed Afghanistan, killed a number of members of Hafizullah Amin at Taj Baig palace in Kabul and declared Babrak Karmal as new President of Afghanistan as his announcement had been aired through radio from Dushanbe of Tajikistan.
A number of military officers on that time said Hafizullah Amin and some members of his family including his two sons and some of his colleagues resisted against Soviet’s forces at Taj Baig palace but their resistance was broken and they were killed.
USSR forces stayed for nine years in Afghanistan and finally the forces’ withdrawal began after the Geneva agreement signed on 14th April 1988. USSR troop withdrawal from Afghanistan was completed in one year (15 Feb 1989).
The nine-year Soviet invasion claimed the lives of over 1 million Afghan civilians and over 14,000 Soviet troops. In 1989, Gorbachev’s decision to withdraw the Soviet military from the country was hailed as a long overdue ending to a bloody conflict and the decision to invade was condemned as a mistake.
What happened after the Soviet pullout and why civil war began in Afghanistan?
One of jihadi leaders Haji Deen Mohammad says the main cause of all crisis in Afghanistan was the Geneva agreement as there was no plan in the agreement in connection with modality of government and maintaining of peace after the Soviet withdrawal.
“Mujahidin did a mistake as they did not negotiate with Najib government,” Deen Mohammad said, adding that mujahidin should have talked to the government of Dr. Najib and agreed on a government with the support of the international community, they didn’t.
Deen Mohammad called on the US, Taliban and Afghanistan government not to repeat the past experiences as the situation in the country is critical and US troops are to withdrawal from Afghanistan.
Now another question is raised here that what strategy Soviet Union wanted to follow after withdrawing from Afghanistan?
Former head of Afghanistan Academy of Sciences and currently advisor of the academy Sulaiman Layeq says When Gorbachev took power in Soviet Union, he started efforts to withdraw the country’s troops from Afghanistan.
In a meeting attended also by Babrak Karmal, Gorbachev talked about Soviet troop withdrawal from Afghanistan, but Afghan President Karmal disagreed and later timeline was set for the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan. The decision was finally implemented in Geneva at a time when Dr. Najibullah ruled Afghanistan.
World pressures and continued attacks launched by mujahidin in various parts of the country have finally paved the way for implementation of agreement prepared by UN representative to Afghanistan, but formation of secret coalitions in Kabul prevented from implementation of the agreement. Fighting unfortunately erupted among mujahidin for taking control of power in Kabul and finally the beautiful city of Kabul was fully destroyed in in-wars between various factions of mujahidin.
Now, all speak about past experiences and consequences after the Soviet withdrawal and it is believed if US irresponsibly takes the decision of its forces withdrawal from Afghanistan without reaching a comprehensive agreement with the Taliban, Afghans will once again experience the 90 decade’s crisis.

Lailuma Noori

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