Gawharshad Begum; Wise Timurid era’s Lady

As one of the notable lady of the history, Gawharshad Begum spent her whole life in education, culture and art to permanently record her name in the world history.
She has left behind many legacies and her tomb is in the country’s western province of Herat. Construction of Gawharshad Mosque was one of her memorial legacy, which is located next to the Imam Reza courtyard in Khurasan.
Known as Gawharshad Agha, the queen was a wife of Shah Rukh, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire who, after his father death, ruled wide regions of Iran and Afghanistan for 43 years and moved the Timurid’s capital from Samarkand to the Herat province in 1405.


She was the daughter of Giathuddin Tarkhan, an important and influential noble during Tîmur’s reign.
Gawharshad Bighum was born in Samarkand of Uzbekistan in 1378 and died in Herat, a province in the country’s western region, in1457.
Both the queen and her husband who were people of culture and knowledge, led a cultural rebirth and with their support of the arts, artists, architects, and philosophers and poets acknowledged to be among the world’s most illustrious, with the most example Jami, the great poet.
Timur had four sons namely, Giathuddin Jangeer, Muezuddin Omar Shiakh, Jamaluddin Miranshah and Shahrukh Mirza who was born from Tajik mother and become governor of Khurasan during his father reign.
The event took place in 1396 and after nine years, in 1405, he announced his monarchy in the same city and turned it as the capital of his sovereignty.
He took control of Samarkand and Zabulustan and widened his rule to the central Asia. Shahrukh was skilled, righteous and scholar, whom perhaps Timur have loved him more than his other sons, because of his distinguished characteristics.
Soon after reaching monarchy, he healed the wounds, his father brought in Khurasan, under his and his wife; Gawharshad Bigum.
He rebuilt the walls of Herat city which was destroyed during Genghis and Timur raids and constructed more magnificent buildings in the city.
Thus, from 1399 to 1447, when he passed away, the king and his wife, Gawharshad Bigum, devoted all their abilities to the reconstruction of Herat city and the development of various artistic and literary arenas in Khorasan.
Shahrukh married Gawharshad in 1388. The mother of Gawharshad passed away and burred next to the Imam Reza mausoleum in 1414 in Mashhad.
She mediated in the people disputes and resolved them wisely. She spent her own property wisely, mostly in the reconstruction and building of public places and aiding the needy people.
Gawharshad built a beautiful mausoleum next to her built madrasa, where she and her offspring as well as her husband (when his body was taken from Ray City to Herat City) are buried.
People from far flanged areas came to join her constructed and led madrasa. The wise queen more often advised his husband in the administrative affairs and usually accompanied Shah Rukh Mirza in his trips.
She had active part in the executive affairs and helped his husband how to carry out the related issues.
Shukria Kohistani

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