Amani era’s changes to education system

By: Masouda Qarizada

Amani era was the beginning of modernization of Afghanistan. Education system in Afghanistan had experienced progress and many challenges.
Talking on development of education system in Amani era, the Rector of Shaheed Burhanuddin Rabbani Educational University Dr. Zabihullah Assadi in an interview with The Kabul Times reporter said, Ghazi King Amanullah Khan visited European countries and decided to bring new changes in education system and wanted to implement western changes in Afghanistan education system. He decided to build modern schools and modernize education system in conservative society of Afghanistan.
Girls were enrolled in schools beside boys. Freedom of women was another change which was not available in Afghanistan neighboring countries. Military, educational and religious sections were separated from each other and a number of students received scholarships and sent to abroad for higher and professional studies.
According to him, King Amanullah Khan and Mahmood Tarzi had been making joint efforts to improve education system in Afghanistan, scholarships were given from Italy, France, Germany and Russia. A number of foreign teachers were also employed.


But in recent years, new education system was replaced by ideological education system. After victory of Jihad, Mujahidin failed to establish a sound system. During Taliban it changed substantially.
“Since 2002 we tried to establish a standard education system to be accountable to present time requirements,” Assadi said.
Meanwhile, rector of Mashaal University Prof Hamidullah Amin said, they have passed three stages of education development. “In the first stage our teachers were Turkish. Later Kabul university was established. Subsequently Faculties of Sciences, laws and political sciences, economics, engineering and Medicine were setup.”
Current building of Kabul university was constructed in 1964.
The first phase of universities development was from 1311 solar year to 1357 until the April communist coup d’état of 1978. During this period, jobs were available to all university graduates and were had no employment problems, he added.
“After 1357 (1978) the collapse of education and higher education system started. Increases in number of universities was paralleled to increase of certain problems,” Amin said.
Higher studies require expenditures, new textbook, researches, lecturers. Teachers need capacity building we need MA and PhD lecturers, he believes.
Since 2002, the number of universities increased and universities established in Herat, Kandahar, Nangarhar and other provinces, large number of private universities were also established.
As at present we have 37-38 public and 135-136 private universities with over 350000 students. Quantity increased but quality decreased.

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