By: Abdul Hadi Quraishi
Historical dimension; In ancient Ariana (5000-7000) BC, the Aryayees were living in vast and green desserts of north, south and east and their written works including Samavid, Rigveda and Atharovid have been recorded by history as ancient words. Distinguished and physical strong dignitaries who were called Deshi and clergymen were living.
In ancient Ariana Brahman Cast, clergymen and Keshteria namely high class (military-warrior) were also serving.
Defense, military and security forces had existed since remote times (7000BC) in Great Afghanistan, including central Asia, Pars, Rava, Bokhdi and north of India. Until today these brave people have interest in army and warfare for example in mountainous areas of Afghanistan including Nuristan, Dawlatshah of Laghman, and Sindh etc.
Structure of Army, role of great dignitaries;
Before Ahmad Shah Baba who was indeed the founder and supporter of new army and secret police, Mirwais Nikah (1109) established an army of 16000 people in a Loya Jirga in Kandahar. Subsequently in 1797, the then Ahmad Khan emperor, Ahmad Shah Baba managed to lay the foundation of a modern-equipped army and secret police. Prior to that when Ahmad Khan (Later Ahmad Shah Baba) arrived from Herat to Kandahar, he had 16500 army under his command rule by the king. The army consisted of military and non-military. The military constituted one third of the army and included infantry, artillery men. For the first time, artillery, gunpowder and artillery shells, sword and other equipment needed by cavalry were supplied.
1 Dalgay= 10 people
10 Dalgay= 1000 people
One Battalion= 10 companies= 100 people
Artillery consisted of lieutenants, NCOs and staff offices. Squadron com, major, LCI, youth companies, commander of light artillery, logistics etc.
Semi military army consisted of people who were commanded by big Khans and governors in the provinces and by Ministry of Defense in the capital. These units were led by flag holders (colonel).
The Army was over 130000 people in which political lessons were given by scholars and other officers.
Army in the era of Amir Shir Ali Khan;
Prior to that, during the reign of Amir Dost Mohammad Khan, it was attempted to establish an army but due to political reasons, the program failed.
The army of Amir Sher Ali Khan consisted of Cavalry, infantry, artillery and secret police. Those were 13700 artillery men with 81 artillery sets. The king managed to supply uniforms (coat, trouser, hat, shoes) and dressed his soldiers. Each soldier was paid Rupee14 per month. The Royal Guard consisted of 51990 soldiers while the number of irregular forces reached 2400 soldiers who were equipped with rifles.
During the reign of Amir Abdurrahman Khan, the army was 58740 soldiers but the total number of army and police reached to 148400 people.
During the golden era of Ghazi Amanullah Khan, the army developed and was led by several generals who were serving sincerely and patriotically and were supported by the king.
During the reign of late King Mohammad Zaher Shah, jet fighters, bombers, armored vehicles and rockets were employed by the army. Military school and university also developed. Pilots were trained by Soviet Union and the army number was about 80,000.
During the reign of late President Dr. Najibullah, Scud missiles were included in the army. Orgone, and Luna missiles were also employed that were unique in the region. Modern communication and logistic equipment and facilities were also provided. There were over 4000 tanks including T-54 and T-52 over 450 different class fighting airplanes.