By: Lailuma Noori
The 7th and 8th Sawr are two important events in political history of the country and the oppressed Afghan nation will always remember the military takeover occurred in the country on 7th Sawr 1357, because this chaotic day considered to be as the start of crisis and calamities to the people of Afghanistan and tragic consequences of this day felt by this nation over the previous three consecutive decade and still going on.
On Sawr 7th, 1357 some government opposition factions by using the army resorted to military cope against the democratic establishment of Sardar Muhammad Dawood Khan to topple him from the power and the military take over besides devastating political and democratic spheres of the country pave the ground for regional and neighboring countries to expand interferences into internal affairs of the country.
8th, Sawr is marked as the day of victory of Mujahedeen factions after they toppled Russian backed Dr. Najibullah government and this is also remembered just like the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) military takeover on democratic government of Dawood Khan. Both 7th and 8th Sawr are remembered as two important events in the history of Afghanistan.
Mujahedeen factions after fourteen consecutive years of armed movements toppled Najibullah from the power. But, the victory followed ethnic warfare and various Mujahedeen factions initiated armed encounters against each other and Afghan people tolerated massive destructions and oppressions as a result of inter-party wars and this internal violence forced millions of Afghans to seek refuge in neighboring Iran and Pakistan for saving their lives from hazards of war.
In short, the day didn’t bring any good change on political chapter of the country and social lives of the people of Afghanistan. The Soviet Union after ten years of invasion of Afghanistan while withdrawing troops from the country established a pro-Russian regime led by Dr. Najibullah and (Watan Party) to ensure safety of its interests in Afghanistan after evacuation of troops.
But, the soviet decision followed serious reaction of Mujahedeen factions which finally paved the way to the Mujahedeen factions to continue their armed movements against Najib govt in the northern part, Uzbek faction led by Abdul Rashid Dostom and Shoraye Nizar led by Ahmad Shah Masood established a coalition which left devastative impacts on foundations of regime in ruling in Kabul and finally joint efforts of Mujahedeen factions forced Najibullah to resign from the power on 16th April 1992 and later he sought refuge in the UN office in Kabul.
Following resignation of Dr. Najibullah, some mujahedeen parties and some elements from the PDPA party tried to fill power vacuum while on the other hand, some of the Mujahedeen factions like Hezbe-e-Islami hadn’t comprehensive political plan to contribute in the political future of the country and later on with the support of Saudi and Pakistani mediation and pressures of some other countries mujahedeen factions were forced to reach on a consensus.
On 4th Sawr, 1371, Mujahedeen factions reached on an agreement, an interim fifty-member council established in Pakistani city of Peshawar under leadership of former president Sibghatullah Mujadidi. The fifty member council nominated Rabbani as the president of the Islamic republic of Afghanistan. But the main issue before the Mujahedeen factions was that these groups hadn’t sufficient understanding and awareness from the positive political and democratic competitions which are implemented in the advanced countries and this gap created serious issues to them and the disagreements between various Mujahedeen groups paved appropriate ground to the fundamental regime of the Taliban to surrender the political power and establish their desired government in Kabul which was totally contrary to humanitarian values, Islam and democracy. The Taliban after occupying the political power implemented their extremist’s laws on the people under the pretext of Sharia and Islamic teachers. The Taliban banned the women from working outside the house or getting education and impose series of extremist’s laws on the people to suppress them.
The Taliban by imposing their fundamental laws also proved the way for international terrorism mainly the Al Qaeda terror network to conduct their terror conspiracies inside the Afghan soil.
Following the 9/1 incident in the US international community decided to topple the regime from the power to avoid further terror attacks that were threatening global peace and security.
After the collapse of the Taliban regime, Afghanistan became focal point of international politics and sitting President Hamid Karzai was elected as the head of interim administration on December 2001.
The fact should be realized that Afghanistan extremely need national unification these days than ever before and it’s the need of time that all ethnic groups and political parties of the country come together around a single goal and lead the country towards sustainable peace, security and to ensure territorial integrity and national sovereignty of the country.